DRH-Asia: Disaster Reduction Hyperbase
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1. Title

Integrated Natural Risk Reduction through a Sustainable Cities Programme

ID: DRH 13 General Plan of El Pinar by Miguel Romero, architect and urban developer.
Hazard: Earthquake , Tsunami , Volcanic eruption , Landslide , Mudflow , Cyclone/Typhoon , Storm surge , Flood , Flash flood , Snow avalanches , Drought , Multi-hazard
Category:

Process Technology (PT)

Proposer: DRH CM
Country: PERU;
Date posted: 04 February 2008
Date published: 09 November 2008
Copyright © 2008 DRH CM (proposer). All rights reserved.

General Plan of El Pinar by Miguel Romero, architect and urban developer.

Contact

Prof. Julio Kuroiwa
Chief technical advisor (CTA) of the SCP. Professor Emeritus National
University of Engineering (UNI). Lima ? Peru
Av. Del Parque Sur 442. Lima 27. PERU
E-mails: jkuroiwah@infonegocio.net.pe / editnsg@speedy.com.pe
Telefax (511) 719-3555 Phone office (511) 719-3554 Phone home (511)
476-4834

2. Major significance / Summary

Great impact in reducing human lives and material losses. Easy and cheap to implement.
Widely accepted by communities and local authorities. Expanding. Action Plan for 2007-2011 approved. Productions being used to consolidate Peru’s National System for Disaster Reduction. Needed to safely settle new inhabitants. Recognitions: UN/ISDR, World Bank, Johannesburg Action Plan. Good Governmental Practice 2006 Award in Peru. Applied in the reconstruction of cities affected by the Peru 2007 earthquake.

3. Keywords

Sustainable city, hazard map, land use plan, disaster mitigation project,implementation, municipal ordinance, reconstruction of affected cities.


II. Categories

4. Focus of this information

Process Technology (PT)

5. Users

5-1. Anticipated users: Community leaders (voluntary base) , Administrative officers , Municipalities , National governments and other intermediate government bodies (state, prefecture, district, etc.) , NGO/NPO project managers and staff , International organizations (UN organizations and programmes, WB, ADRC, EC, etc.) , Financing and insurance business personnel , Experts , Teachers and educators , Architects and engineers , Sociologists and political economists , Information technology specialists , Urban planners

5-2. Other users: Policy makers , Motivated researchers , Local residents

6. Hazards focused

Earthquake , Tsunami , Volcanic eruption , Landslide , Mudflow , Cyclone/Typhoon , Storm surge , Flood , Flash flood , Snow avalanches , Drought , Multi-hazard

7. Elements at risk

Human lives , Human networks in local communities , Business and livelihoods , Infrastructure , Buildings , Urban areas , Coastal areas , River banks and fluvial basin , Mountain slopes , Agricultural lands , Cultural heritages


III. Contact Information

8. Proposer(s) information (Writer of this template)

Prof. Julio Kuroiwa
Chief technical advisor (CTA) of the SCP. Professor Emeritus National
University of Engineering (UNI). Lima ? Peru
Av. Del Parque Sur 442. Lima 27. PERU
E-mails: jkuroiwah@infonegocio.net.pe / editnsg@speedy.com.pe
Telefax (511) 719-3555 Phone office (511) 719-3554 Phone home (511)
476-4834

9. Country(ies)/region(s) where the technology/knowledge/practice originated

PERU;

ln Peru, South America. On going since 1998
130 Peruvian cities, located all over the country.

10. Names and institutions of technology/knowledge developers

Julio Kuroiwa, Alfredo Perez and Alfredo Zerga, members of SCP Task Force. Peru’s Civil Defense. Peruvian Government. Ciro Mosqueira SCP National Director.

11. Title of relevant projects if any

Safer homes for the poorest. Included in the SCP-1S for the period 2007-2011, and route map for Peruvian municipalities for the period 2008-2021

12. References and publications

? Idriss, I. M. (1991). Earthquake Ground Motions at Soft Soil Sites. Proc. 2nd Intern. Conf. on Recent Advances in Geotech. Earthq. Engg. And Soil Mechanics. Pp 2265-2273. St. Luis. MO. USA.
? Seed, R. B. et al. (2001). Recent advances in soil liquefaction engineering and seismic site response evaluation. Proc. 4th Intern. Conf. on Recent Advances in Geotech. Earthq. Engg. and Soil Mechanics. Paper No SPL-2, 45p. San Diego, CA. USA.
? Kuroiwa, Julio. Disaster Reduction. Living in Harmony with Nature. Book in English 512 p. Editorial NSG S.A.C. Lima. Officially presented during the UN World Conference on Disaster Reduction Kobe, Hyogo, January, 2005.
? Kuroiwa, Julio. Sustainable Cities, a Regional Seismic Scenario, and the 2001-06-23 Arequipa Peru Earthquake. Natural Hazard Review, Vol. 3, No 4, Nov. 1, 2002. An ASCE publication.
? Kuroiwa, J. & Alva, J. (1991) Microzonation and its Application to Urban & Regional Planning in Peru. Proc. 4ICSZ. Vol. I, pp. 771-794. Stanford. CA. USA.
? Podesta, J. L. & J. Kuroiwa (2006). “Risk Governance of Natural
Disaster Reduction for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development”. International Disaster Reduction Conference. IDRC Davos 2006. Davos, Switzerland Aug. 27 ? Sep. 1, 2006.

13. Note on ownership if any

Free use. Belong to the public domain


IV. Background

14. Disaster events and/or societal circumstances, which became the driving force either for developing the technology/knowledge or enhancing its practice

In November 1998, there was a need to reconstruct the Peru’s NW cities severely affected by El Niño 1997-98. The author proposed to the then Prime Minister of Peru and Head of El Niño Reconstruction Committee (CEREN) to safely reconstruct the cities according to the attributes of a Sustainable City, just defined by him. His ad-honorem services were immediately
accepted. In 2001 the SCP was transferred from CEREN to Peru’s Civil Defence (INDECI) and the Arequipa earthquake occurred. So the SCP was expanded to the S-W region, the macroseismic area. INDECI evaluated the results of the application of the SCP in Peru’s NW and SW regions and it was expanded countrywide. The key tool is the hazard map based on microzonation studies, which was developed in Peru after the 1970 earthquake. In the early 1980s it reached the state-of-the-art. The microzonation methods and techniques were simplified to be of practical use and affordable cost. At the end of 2006, the new top decision-making authorities of INDECI approved the Action Plan for 2007-2011.

 


V. Description

15. Feature and attribute

As population and values are concentrated in the cities, in intense events the loss of lives in developing countries and the material losses in industrialized nations may be very high. For example, in the Indian Ocean 2004 tsunami,
230,000 victims; Peru 1970 EQ 67,000; and Pakistan 2005 EQ 95,000. In the New Orleans 2005 “Katrina” and Kobe 1995 EQ, losses surpassed US$ 100 billion, unacceptable even by rich countries. According to the UN, 2 billion people will be added to the world population in the next three decades. So a global effort is necessary to reduce losses in urban areas. The Sustainable Cities Programme (SCP), focusing on the first attribute of a SC, its physical safety (PCS-1S), is one of the ongoing programmes in that direction. In the SCP-1S the key tool is the hazard map based on microzonation studies.
Population densification and city expansion take place in sectors of low to medium hazard. High-hazard sectors are used with restriction and very high- hazard sectors are not permitted for urban occupation.

 

16. Necessary process to implement

First, it is necessary to formulate a project/programme (p/p) with a good cost-benefit ratio; practical; with tangible results; and of great benefit to the communities.
The awareness of communities and authorities must be raised by means of workshops, lectures and the media.
Funding by national, regional and local governments. Use international auspices only as seed money or in complementary investments.
Firm commitment of the local authorities to impulse the p/p. Use local trained consultants to reduce operating costs and for (p/p) follow up.
Leadership of the executing institution and efficient task force; indispensable to have good communication with the top level of decision-making.
Efficient and transparent management of the funds (this time in charge of
UNDP). Be proactive. For example, some theses are developed at universities 1-2 years before an activity is initiated.

17. Strength and limitations

The multihazard approach hazard map - a key tool for safe, sound urban development - uses microzonation methods and techniques based on global
existing knowledge and experience, mainly in Japan and California as well as
the results of damage surveys of 22 disasters of geological and climatic origin
that occurred in the Americas from 1963 to 2007. During the development it reached the state-of-the-art level, early in the 1980s.
Limitation: The SCP-1S consists of: hazard map, land-use plan, disaster mitigation profile projects and implementation by municipalities. The SCP implementation is not being carried out as expected, due to the limited economic and technical capacities of local governments. During the next few years INDECI and UNDP will concentrate on tackling this important problem.

18. Lessons learned through implementation if any

For a long-lasting programme as is SCP-1S it is necessary to have:
• Strong support from the highest political decision-makers to ensure continuous
funding. This is possible using windows of opportunities.
• Good governance. In this case, smooth correlation between the institutional
management and the disaster-assessment working group.
Team work with prudent leadership, so that every member feels that he “owns” the programme, and that his contribution is very important.


VI. Resources required

19. Facilities and equipments required

In this era of the interconnected computer, there is no need for large offices: a small one is sufficient for the SCP Task Force and its assistants. As the
Programme uses conventional engineering methodology, it is possible to use
existing private laboratories or those at the national universities, with which
most of the INDECI consultants are associated. But the methodology is updated
according to international advances. For example, the contribution of Idriss,
1991, and Seed et al. 2001 on the great amplification of seismic waves in soft
soil versus rigid soil or rock in the range of small acceleration.
The conclusion agreed well with our own research into the microzonation effects in field surveys of 15 EQs occurred in the Americas from 1963 to 2007; the impact on the vulnerable adobe housing, very sensitive to V to VIII MMI degrees, was analyzed. Modern technology is included also through young consultants such as Dr. Zenon Aguilar who was trained by Prof. H. Iemura at Kyoto University. Dr. Aguilar owns modern equipment and software.

20. Costs, organization, manpower, etc.

First and foremost, a strong, well organized executing institution is needed,with quick access to decision-makers at the top level of central government.
A well informed, highly motivated task force, and knowledgeable and able
consultants on geology, soil mechanics, hydrology/hydraulics, urban planning,
the environment and GIS will be required. In this case most of them are
university professors, who were trained on the job by the SCP Task Force.
The cost per city varies widely depending on size, existing information,
accessibility, and the existence of local resources in terms of personnel and
facilities, such as a laboratory.
But the cost may be the cheapest of the ongoing SC programmes, because of the very reasonable consulting fee, thanks to the participation of graduated students developing their thesis.
Existing soil data in use as a complement of soil exploration plan. They are available at the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health since sites were investigated for the design and construction of new schools and hospitals.
The SCP designates some US$ 200,000/per year for consulting fees and supervision, paid by Peru’s Central Government. This does not include salaries of the INDECI authorities or of the SCP Task Force and its assistants nor does it include the operational cost of INDECI Central Office or those of INDECI’s regional offices when they provide assistance to the SCP Task Force (for example, transportation costs in their respective regions).
UNDP and municipalities provide some contributions is cash or in kind.


VII. Message from the proposer if any

21. Message

Three disasters of natural origen, three opportunities. (see map in p. 11/17)

When the Ica region or Pisco Peru earthquake occurred, (Mw 8.0 USGS) on August 15, 2007 (F.01), the
SCP-1S had completed the hazard maps, land-use plans and disaster mitigation profiles of 123 Peruvian cities and towns with 6,3 million inhabitants. On that list were 16 cities and towns located in the macroseismic area, including the provincial capitals of the worst affected zone: Ica, Pisco, Chincha, and Cañete.
Two days after the earthquake, the author started a systematic damage survey focused on the seismic microzonation effects. In the SCP-1S 2001-2002 hazard maps, the Pisco beach area (F.02) and Tambo de Mora (F.03) were graded as very-high-hazard and high-hazard, because these sectors are threatened by soil liquefaction and tsunami, as in fact occurred on August 15, 2007.


Since the hazard maps of the investigated cities and towns were in good agreement with the actual degree of damage caused by the August 15, 2007 event and its geographic distribution, the national authorities, i.e. Peru’s Civil Defence (INDECI) and the Ministry of Housing, Construction, and Sanitation (MVCS) decided to reconstruct and expand the affected cities based on their validated – i.e. reviewed and expanded – hazard maps. The UNDP continues supporting this Peruvian national effort. The regional and local authorities and the affected communities were fully informed on the general situation, and they accepted that decision.


In mid-September 2007, the validation of the hazard maps of the main affected cities was started. To the list were added 10 towns which had been severely affected by the August 2007 earthquake. By June 2008, validated or new hazard maps were available for 26 cities and towns, and these are now being applied in their urban plans for reducing the risk of disaster.


The validation of the hazard map for the city of Pisco started in mid-September 2007. Due to a quick decision of Peru’s Civil Defence (INDECI), funds were immediately made available from the INDECI 2007 investment programme. Pisco city’s validated hazard map was completed by December 2007 (F.04).


In September, 2007, Dr. Kim Howells, Minister of Foreign and Common-wealth Office (FCO) of the United Kingdom visited the affected area. The author gave Dr. Howells a very brief explanation of the SCP-1S, the updated 1998-2007 results, and how its applications reduce the initial construction/reconstruction costs, and especially the maintenance cost, if the constructions are damaged in future events. By using the hazard maps and earthquake-resistant techniques developed in Peru during the last decade, this cost is able to be reduced substantially. Consequently, the Department for International Development of the United Kingdom (DFID, UK) donated US$500,000; thanks to the well-prepared request formulated by the UNDP/Peru.


With part of the funds donated by the DFID-UK, the hazard maps of Ica, Chincha and Cañete were validated, these being the provincial capital cities located in the macroseismic area. The hazard maps of 12 towns, and an additional 10 towns that had not previously been investigated but which were severely affected by the 2007 earthquake, were studied. All those studies started in November 2007 and concluded in May 2008. Most of the consultants had previously engagements with the SCP-1S; they were residents in the affected area, and professors and researchers of the National University of Ica. The resulting hazard maps are of good quality and they were completed on time, thanks to the hard work and dedication of the SCP-1S INDECI/UNDP consultants.


The Minister of Housing, Construction and Sanitation, Mr. Enrique Cornejo Ramirez in the presentation of the Manual on the Development of Sustainable Cities, edited and printed by UNDP/Peru in May 2008 with DFID funds, said that it had been “unanimously decided to reconstruct the cities affected by the Ica region’s earthquake of 15 August 2007 applying their validated hazard maps.”


The SCP-1S programme started in 1998, when there was the need to reconstruct the cities affected by the El Niño 1997-98, and it was expanded country-wide when the Regional Seismic Scenario 1992-95 was seen to coincide closely with the real effects of the 2001 Arequipa earthquake; the programme is now being consolidated as a result of the Ica region 2007 earthquake.


It may be concluded: Three disasters of natural origen, three opportunities, well used as a result of team work on the part of national, regional, and local Peruvian authorities, UNDP/Peru the affected communities, and consultants.    

F.01 Macroseismic area of the Peru August 15, 2007 earthquake, where the location of Pisco and Tambo de Mora are underlined. In those localities occurred the worst destruction in the macroseismic area as had been foreseen by the 2001–2002 hazard map. In both places, strips parallel to the coastal line, were graded as very–high-hazard. Those strips are threatened by soil liquefaction and tsunami intrusion.                            

F.02 Pisco Hazard map developed by the SCP-1S INDECI/PNUD in 2001 – 2002. At the location indicated; damage sustained there in some locations is shown below.

1. Damage on the Pan-American Highway 2. Soil at downtown Pisco.
3. Collapsed Embassy Hotel.
4. R.C. building in downtown Pisco.
5. Tsunami effects in San Andres.
6. San Clemente Church at the Pisco main square.                   

F.03 EFFECTS OF THE AUGUST 15, 2007 EARTHQUAKE IN TAMBO DE MORA

1. Soil liquefaction in the upper part of Tambo de Mora.
2. Settlement in the jail of Tambo de Mora.
3. Sand volcano.
4. Lateral spread of a wall, “opening a door”. Both walls were separated only 2cm and were aligned.
5. A house that had settled some 0.70m due to soil liquefaction.
6. Adobe church, with no damage at all. Located only 200m from where widespread soil liquefaction occurred. The church is located on dry, stiff soil very different from the saturated silty sand existing nearby. This is a clear example of the microzonation effect.

F.04 VALIDATED PISCO HAZARD MAP DECEMBER 2007

The hazard map reviewed from September to December 2007, by the SCP-1S INDECI/PNUD Pisco was also studied by the Japan Peru Center for Earthquake Engineering Research and Disaster Mitigation from the Civil Engineering Department of the National University of Engineering (CISMID/FIC/UNI). The SCP-1S (2001-2002) and the validated hazard map agreed well, the very high hazard sectors of the three maps are practically carbon copies of each other.
This is one of the mean reasons why Mr. Enrique Cornejo Ramirez, the Minister of Housing, Construction and Sanitation (MVCS) said: “It was decided by consensus to develop the reconstruction plans of the main affected cities based on their validated hazard maps”.


VIII. Self evaluation in relation to applicability

22. How do you evaluate the technology/knowledge that you have proposed?

It is a technology/knowledge that has high application potential verified by implementation in various field sites.

23. Notes on the applicability if any

According to the UN, during the next 3 decades the world population will increase by two billion people. Most of them are going to live in large and medium cities of developing countries. It is necessary to settle them safely and orderly. The SCP is easy to replicate as it uses conventional expertise existing around the globe; specialists: in geology, soil mechanic, hydrology/hydraulics, urban planning, environment and GIS.


IX. Application examples

No.1

    E1-1. Project name if available

    Sustainable Cities Programme, 1st Step (SCP-1S)


    E1-2. Place

    130 cities and towns located countrywide in Peru, with 6,4 million inhabitants

    SUSTAINABLE CITIES PROGRAM INDECI/UNDP, 1998-2008. RESULTS

    REGIONS    CITIES&TOWNS

    From 11/1998 to 06/2008, 133 cities and towns with 6.4 million inhabitants have been investigated. Agreements have been signed with participating local national universities: . In 10 years some 80 consultants have been trained on the job.

     

    SECTORS CLASSIFIED PER DEGREE OF HAZARD

     

    To provide some guidance in the development of hazard maps, a matrix with the degree of hazard, their characteristics, some typical examples of natural threats and restrictions and recommendations on the use of different sectors are included.

     

    HAZARD MAP, LAND USE PLAN, AND A DISASTER MITIGATION PROJECT FOR SULLANA, PERU.

     

    a. Hazard Map for Sullana, Peru. The continuous red blue strip is the canal constructed in 1984-85, following a route traced by nature in   1983, when a 100-300 m strip was destroyed by dammed water overflowing because the platform of the Pan American Highway had broken. (Dam break).
    b. Damage in La Quebrada during El Niño 1982 – 1983.
    c. The canal along La Quebrada freeway flooded by El Niño 1997-98. No significant damage was reported in Sullana.
    d. Land-use plan for Sullana, Peru, 2000. Note that a lot of agricultural land next to the city has been protected with a green belt. The area to be developed is the desert zone to the left, to the south west.
    (From Kuroiwa, Julio 2004. Disaster Reduction Living in Harmony with Nature. Chapter 2. Sustainable Cities. Agenda for the 21st Century. p43)


    E1-3. Year

    1998 to date


    E1-4. Investor

    Mostly Peru’s Central Government funds Contributions from
    local governments and UNDP, DFID from the U.K.


    E1-5. People involved

    SCP Task Force: Prof. Julio Kuroiwa, leader, Mr. Alfredo Perez (CE),Mr. Alfredo Zerga (urban planner). Mr. Ciro Mosqueira, National Director of the SCP and deputy chief of INDECI. Dozens of consultants.


    E1-6. Monetary costs incurred

    For consulting fee and supervision, an average US$ 200,000/per year, including use of laboratories considered in the consulting fee.
    That amount does not include full time permanent staff of SCP, Task Force; nor does it include INDECI authorities in their headquarters and regional offices, nor does it include supporting employees.


    E1-7. Total workload required

    Full time work of the SCP Task Force and its assistants, a dozen of 6-8 months part time of each consultant.


    E1-8. Evidence of positive result

    Hazard maps, land-use plans and disaster-mitigation profiles have been developed for 80 cities, and hazard maps for 130 cities, including the former 80. All those results have been unanimously approved by their communities, mayors and council members, and enforced by municipal ordinances.


No.2

    E2-1. Project name if available

    Relocation of Tipon town.


    E2-2. Place

    Tipon is located some 10 km south east (SE) from of Cusco city, Peru, in the Peru south-eastern region


    E2-3. Year

    Flooded in 1992 and in 1994


    E2-4. Investor

    Peru Civil Defence (INDECI) funded. The families involved in the relocation


    E2-5. People involved

    The relocation of Tipon, severely inundated in 1992 and again in 1994, was recommended and executed by Ruperto Benavente, Professor of Geology at the National University of Cusco, who is the local consultant of SCP-1S INDECI/UNDP, trained on the job by the SCP-1S Task Force. The process started in the 1990s and is almost completed in 2008. About 400 people’s now living in the new location. About 200 continue living in its original location, but out of the inundation threated sectors


    E2-6. Monetary costs incurred

    The consultancy fee of Prof. Benavente was less than US$ 3,000 and paid by Peru Civil Defence. The new location was provided by the Peruvian State and the relocated families built their homes at this new location by themselves.


    E2-7. Total workload required

    The most important resource was the convincing argument delivered by Prof. Benavente to the local communities and authorities regarding their future safety.


    E2-8. Evidence of positive result

    Most of the former residents of Tipon are now living in their new town.       

    TIPON     

    1. Prof. Ruperto Benavente (Geologist) of the National University of Cusco, showing Tipon. According to the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Tipon is a water engineering masterpiece of the Inca Empire which covers a 500–acre, self–contained walled settlement. Kenneth R. Wright P.E, of Denver, CO, said that Tipon was planned integrating water, soil, agriculture and topography, creating a virtual water garden that impresses all who visit this place.


    2. General view of Tipon, located in the rural community of Choquepata, province of Quispicanchis, Cusco region, at 13º 34´ 09´´S and 71º 47´ 20´´W, some 10 km south east of the city of Cusco, Peru, at 3560 m.a.s.l, on average. The community of Choquepata, which was relocated, is some 2 km, downstream from Tipon.


    3. To the left, the lower part of the community of Choquepata, which was affected by mud flows in 1992 and 1994. Far on the slope is New Tipon. At present (2008), some 400 people are resettled in New Tipon, and 200 remain at Choquepata, both on flood-free areas. Prof. R. Benavente developed the hazard map, and did the coordination with the Peruvian Civil Defense Regional Office of Cusco, local authorities and the Choquepata community members. He convinced all of them of the need to relocate part of Choquepata (Photo courtesy of Prof. R. Benavente, taken on September 29, 2008)


    4. Closer view of New Tipon. Photo taken by the author in August 2007.


No.3

    E3-1. Project name if available

    New Antamina Town named El Pinar, where management, high-ranking staff, employees and labors of the Antamina Mining Company live at present.


    E3-2. Place

    El Pinar is located in the upper part of Huaraz, the capital city of the Ancash Region. Huaraz was razed during the Peru 1970 earthquake, near 10,000 people were killed under their adobe houses, built on soft, water-saturated soil. Previously, in 1941, an avalanche had killed some 5,000 people there.
    The location of El Pinar was initially selected by the Antamina executives and its main consultant, Mr. Miguel Romero, an urban planner and Peru’s former Deputy Minister of Housing and Construction.


    E3-3. Year

    2000


    E3-4. Investor

    Antamina Mining Company. It is an important Peruvian polymetallic mining company. Mitsubishi (10% share in the organisation) provided powerful pumping equipment to transport semi-liquid ore from the high Andean mountain region (over 4,000 m.a.s.l.) to a sea port.


    E3-5. People involved

    Antamina Mining Operation Manager, Mr. Miguel Romero, an urban planner and his team. They were selected following a public bidding. The author was in charge of coordinating the microzonation studies and the El Pinar hazard map.


    E3-6. Monetary costs incurred

    The site investigation, urban development plan including the design of lifelines services as water, sewage energy and communication systems and housing typical design, cost some US$ 250,000


    E3-7. Total workload required

    The project was developed in 10 months in the year 2000 by a team of urban planners, architects, civil, structural and sanitation engineers. Some 40 men/month + assistants.


    E3-8. Evidence of positive result

    In the El Pinar Town live now some 5000 residents. It was constructed from 2001 to 2004 by a private construction company.

    EL PINAR

    1. Location of El Pinar in the Huaraz area, Peru.
    2. General Plan of El Pinar by Miguel Romero, architect and urban developer.
    3. Satellite view, 2005. Notice that the north-eastern part is not developed yet, and the round plaza is located in the center of El Pinar. The drainage canals: one located in the lower part of the Plaza is the original drainage that has been functioning for centuries. The hazard map was developed by a team headed by the author.
    4. General view of El Pinar. Note that the houses are located on gentle slopes inclined toward the plaza. The general drainage is toward the left of the picture.
    5. Partial view of the built-up area of El Pinar.



X. Other related parallel initiatives if any

Message

• The UNISDR/UNESCO SCP focuses on reducing earthquake damage. Damage from climatic disasters is gradually being included.
• The aim of the UNHABITAT/UNEP SCP is that the cities and towns will be made economically, socially and environmentally sustainable. This is one of the leading technical cooperation programmes in the field of urban environmental planning and management, and it is in agreement with Agenda 21 and UNHABITAT Agenda.
The SCP of the United Nations University, UNU, Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan, includes climatic hazards, and it is to be applied in SE Asia.


XI. Remarks for version upgrade

Message

The INDECI/UNDP SCP, making good use of SCP-1S 1999-2008 results, is integrating public and private sectors, international aid agencies and NGOs to strengthen and enlarge this Programme in the 2007-2011 Action Plan, as already approved by the top authorities of Peru’s Civil Defence. It will continue receiving UNDP support.

Institutions contributing to DRH Contents (Click here): posted on request