DRH-Asia: Disaster Reduction Hyperbase
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1. Title

School-Catchments Network for water-related disaster prevention

ID: DRH 58 School-Catchments Network in Upper Rio Negro watershed, Brazil
Hazard: Landslide , Mudflow , Flood , Flash flood , Drought , Desertification , Climate change impact , Land degradation , Multi-hazard
Category:

Process Technology (PT)

Proposer: Masato Kobiyama
Country: BRAZIL;
Date posted: 29 March 2010
Date published: 23 April 2010
Copyright © 2010 Masato Kobiyama (proposer). All rights reserved.

School-Catchments Network in Upper Rio Negro watershed, Brazil

Contact

Dr. Masato KOBIYAMA
Associate Professor, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Brazil
Coordinator, Laboratory of Hydrology (LabHidro), UFSC, Brazil
Contact: kobiyama@ens.ufsc.br / +55 (48)3721-7749

2. Major significance / Summary

Implementation of School Catchments Network is conducted by constructing various hydrological stations. This network is utilized for scientific research, environmental education and disaster prevention, by local inhabitants, scientists, water resources managers and the Civil Defense organization. Local communities can recognize the hydrological processes of their region and establish adequate manages of water resources and natural disasters.

3. Keywords

School catchment; monitoring; education; water resources management; disaster prevention.


II. Categories

4. Focus of this information

Process Technology (PT)

5. Users

5-1. Anticipated users: Community leaders (voluntary base) , Administrative officers , Municipalities , National governments and other intermediate government bodies (state, prefecture, district, etc.) , NGO/NPO project managers and staff , International organizations (UN organizations and programmes, WB, ADRC, EC, etc.) , Commercial entrepreneurs , Experts , Teachers and educators , Architects and engineers , Information technology specialists , Urban planners , Rural planners , Environmental/Ecological specialists , Others

Civil Defense organization

5-2. Other users: Policy makers , Motivated researchers , Local residents

6. Hazards focused

Landslide , Mudflow , Flood , Flash flood , Drought , Desertification , Climate change impact , Land degradation , Multi-hazard

7. Elements at risk

Human lives , Human networks in local communities , Business and livelihoods , Infrastructure , Buildings , Urban areas , Rural areas , River banks and fluvial basin , Mountain slopes , Agricultural lands , Cultural heritages


III. Contact Information

8. Proposer(s) information (Writer of this template)

Dr. Masato KOBIYAMA
Associate Professor, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Brazil
Coordinator, Laboratory of Hydrology (LabHidro), UFSC, Brazil
Contact: kobiyama@ens.ufsc.br / +55 (48)3721-7749

9. Country(ies)/region(s) where the technology/knowledge/practice originated

BRAZIL;

Upper Negro River basin, Santa Catarina state.

10. Names and institutions of technology/knowledge developers

Laboratory of Hydrology (LabHidro) of the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC)

11. Title of relevant projects if any

"Analysis of the water and sediment production of the Rio Preto watershed through the use of school-catchments”, funded by the National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) of Brazil.

12. References and publications

Kobiyama M, Chaffe PLB, Rocha HL, Corseuil CW, Malutta S, Giglio JN, Mota AA, Santos I, Ribas Junior U, Langa R (2009). Implementation of school catchments network for water resources management of the Upper Negro River region, southern Brazil. In: Taniguchi M, Burnett WC, Fukushima Y, Haigh M, Umezawa Y (eds). From Headwaters to the Ocean: Hydrological Changes and Watershed Management, London: Tayor & Francis Group, 2009. p.151-157.

13. Note on ownership if any


IV. Background

14. Disaster events and/or societal circumstances, which became the driving force either for developing the technology/knowledge or enhancing its practice

The Upper Negro River (UNR) basin (3552 km²) is one of the headwater basins of the Iguaçu River basin (68,410 km²) which is located along the border between the Paraná and Santa Catarina States, southern Brazil (Figure 1). DRH_Kobiyama_Figure1.jpg

 

The Iguaçu River basin is characterized with a very high potential to generate the hydroelectric energy and there are 5 large hydroelectric-power-dams along the Iguaçu River. Some local communities have thought that the frequent floods are caused by the dam construction. Also, the Iguaçu River basin is characterized with the Subtropical Ombrophilous Forest (SOF). Since only 2% of its original area remain, this ecosystem must be preserved. Recently the conversion of the pine reforestation areas to the SOF has been strongly requested without the consideration that the regional economy depends mainly on the reforestation activities. Therefore, the ecological and hydrological researches in the UNR basin are indispensable to reduce the damages caused by the water-related disasters. In these circumstances, seven small experimental catchments (0.1 to 10 km2 scales) with hydrological monitoring were constructed in the UNR basin in order to answer the question about what kind of land-use is best for the water resources management (Figure 2).

DRH_Kobiyama_Figure2.jpg


V. Description

15. Feature and attribute

School catchment network is a network of experimental catchments which serve for scientific research and educational purposes, such as environmental education activities of local communities and qualification lectures for technicians. The catchments should be equipped with meteorological, hydrological and/or sedimentological stations for scientific research and educational activities. Data provided by the stations can also be used for water and disaster management. Ideally, the school-catchments network should have catchments with different land-uses and also with different scales. This technology can be implemented through agreements between university, government and enterprises. In each municipality or region, the school-catchment network should be established and inhabitants, scientists, managers working together with the Civil Defense organization do the hydrological monitoring. The final goal of the school catchments network is disaster reduction. This technology would increase an individual’s knowledge on hydrology, which would enhance his (or her) participation in the community in terms of water resources management and disaster prevention. Consequently, an enhanced participation of each member would elevate the quantity and quality of the community action, and would increase the efficiency of the water resources management and disaster prevention processes (Figure 3).DRH_Kobiyama_Figure3.jpg

16. Necessary process to implement

This technology can be implemented through agreements between university, government and enterprises (Figure 4). DRH_Kobiyama_Figure4.jpg

Steps of the implementation: - Agreement between university and land owner (enterprises, government) for allowance of instalation of monitoring stations in the strategic sites; - Instalation and maintenance of meteorological, hydrological and/or sedimentological stations: by scientists; - Monitoring: by community, scientists, managers and Civil Defense organization; - Educational activities: by scientists and government; for children, students, teachers, technicians, managers and/or community; - Scientific research (monitoring and computational modeling): by scientists, university; - Data providing: database feeded directly by automatic stations or by scientists;data freely available for scientists, government, enterprise, managers, Civil Defense organization, and community.

17. Strength and limitations

Strengths: - Contribution not only to the scientific researches but also to the environmental education activities; - Hydrological data provided for water resources management and disaster management; - Hydrological data available for enterprises, which can motivate them to participate in the project; - Hydrological data available for Civil Defense organization, which can improve its actions; - Hydrological data available for scientists, which can increase the understanting of natural processes; - Hydrological data available for community, which can increase its awareness about hydrological processes; - Hydrological data available for managers, which is essential for their water resources and disaster management; - Hydrological data available for government, which is useful for land and water management and urban planning; - Visiting school catchments allows a person to understand hydrology better; - People will recognize the hydrological processes of their region and can plan most adequate water resources and disaster management. Limitations: - Site for the instalation of stations is needed, for long-term period; - Financial resources for purchase and instalation of stations is needed; - Maintenance of stations is needed.

18. Lessons learned through implementation if any

~ Agreement between the scientists (university) and land-owner (enteprise) and long-term commitment are essential; ~ Partnership with government (Municipality, Prefecture, District, or other) is important; ~ Frequent maintenance of stations is required; this task can be done by scientists and inhabitants.


VI. Resources required

19. Facilities and equipments required

~ Monitoring stations (automatic or not): rainfall gauge, river gauge station, meteorological station (optional), sediment sensor (optional), tensiometer (optional). ~ If stations are automatic: system for data transmition (i.g., radio, internet, satellite) and computer for data aquisition.

20. Costs, organization, manpower, etc.

~ Manpower is required for instalation of the stations: inhabitants and scientist; ~ Human resource is required for for collecting data periodically: about once a week or once a month, if the stations are automatic, or every day if station is not automatic; it can be done by inhabitants and/or scientists; ~ Human resource is required for maintenance of stations: by inhabitants and/or scientist; ~ Organizational support is required for educational activities: by government; ~ Capacited human resource is required for lecturing in education activities: scientists; ~ Financial resources are required for instalation of the stations: by government, university and/or enterprise.


VII. Message from the proposer if any

21. Message

Small, slow, simple and science are beautiful.


VIII. Self evaluation in relation to applicability

22. How do you evaluate the technology/knowledge that you have proposed?

It is a technology/knowledge that has fair applicability demonstrated by implementation in one or more field sites.

23. Notes on the applicability if any


IX. Application examples

No.1

    E1-1. Project name if available

    "Analysis of the water and sediment production of the Rio Preto watershed through the use of school-catchments"


    E1-2. Place

    Upper Negro River watershed (Bacia Hidrografica do Alto Rio Negro), Rio Negrinho city and vicinities, Santa Catarina state, South of Brazil.

    DRH_Kobiyama_Image2.jpg

    Figure E-1 School-Catchments Network in Upper Rio Negro watershed, Brazil


    E1-3. Year

    2006


    E1-4. Investor

    National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) of Brazil
    Modo Battistella Reflorestamento S.A. - MOBASA (currently Battistella Florestas)


    E1-5. People involved

    Laboratory of Hydrology - Federal University of Santa Catarina (LabHidro/UFSC)
    Rio Negrinho City Hall
    Modo Battistella Reflorestamento S.A. - MOBASA (currently Battistella Florestas)
    Laboratory of Hydrogeomorphology - Federal University of Parana
    [Masato Kobiyama (Dr.), Pedro Luiz Borges Chaffe (Msc.), Henrique Lucini Rocha (Eng.), Fernando Grison (Msc.), Claudia Weber Corseuil (Dr.), Simone Malutta, Joana Nery Giglio, Aline de Almeida Mota, Pedro Guilherme de Lara, Irani dos Santos (Dr.), Ulisses Ribas Junior (Eng.), Reinaldo Langa (Eng.), Elaine Cristina Schoeffel]


    E1-6. Monetary costs incurred

    Not every equipment are required. In the case of financial limitation, simpler gauges (not automatic) can be used. ~ Meteorological station US$ 2.500,00 ~ Parshall flume US$ 800,00 ~ Current meter US$ 6.000,00 ~ Pressure sensor (for water level) US$ 2.000,00 ~ Integrating Sediment sampler US$ 2.000,00 ~ Turbidity/Sediment station US$ 6.000,00 ~ Tensiometer US$ 200,00 ~ Microcomputer US$ 1.000,00 ~ Laptop U$ 1.000,00 ~ GPS U$ 700,00


    E1-7. Total workload required

    About 200 hours per week, by 20 people (mean+B208 of 10 hours per week per person).


    E1-8. Evidence of positive result

    ~ Participants of the educational activities carried out so far were keen to attend more complementary hydrology courses that relate forest, water resources and natural disasters; ~ It is easily perceived that visiting school catchments allows a person to understand hydrology better.



X. Other related parallel initiatives if any

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XI. Remarks for version upgrade

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