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1. Title

Low-cost and adaptive technology to support a community-based landslide early warning system in developing countries

ID: DRH 56
Hazard: Landslide , Climate change impact
Category:

Implementation Oriented Technology (IOT)

Proposer: Teuku Faisal Fathani
Country: INDONESIA;
Date posted: 02 March 2010
Date published: 15 March 2010
Copyright © 2010 Teuku Faisal Fathani (proposer). All rights reserved.

Contact

Name : Dr. Teuku Faisal Fathani
Position : Assoc. Professor in Geotechnical Engineering
Affiliation : Gadjah Mada University
Address : Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jl. Grafika No. 2 Yogyakarta 55281, INDONESIA
E-mail : tfathani@yahoo.com / fathani@tsipil.ugm.ac.id
Tel : +62 274 545675 Fax : +62 274 545676

Co-writer (1) : Prof. Dwikorita Karnawati
Position : Professor in Geological Engineering
Affiliation : Gadjah Mada University

Co-writer (2) : Prof. Kyoji Sassa
Position : Prof. Emeritus of Kyoto University – Executive Director of ICL
Affiliation : International Consortium on Landslides (ICL)

Co-writer (3) : Dr. Hiroshi Fukuoka
Position : Assoc. Professor of Kyoto University
Affiliation : Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI) Kyoto University

2. Major significance / Summary

Simple and low-cost equipments for landslide monitoring and early warning have been developed and installed at five provinces in Indonesia. These monitoring equipments are connected to siren system in order to directly warn the local community for taking necessary actions in dealing with landslide disaster. In addition, the local community in remote areas can easily operate and maintain the equipment based on their own capability.

3. Keywords

Landslide early warning, simple technology, community development, disaster risk reduction


II. Categories

4. Focus of this information

Implementation Oriented Technology (IOT)

5. Users

5-1. Anticipated users: Community leaders (voluntary base) , Administrative officers , NGO/NPO project managers and staff , International organizations (UN organizations and programmes, WB, ADRC, EC, etc.) , Commercial entrepreneurs , Experts

5-2. Other users: Policy makers , Motivated researchers , Local residents

6. Hazards focused

Landslide , Climate change impact

7. Elements at risk

Human lives , Human networks in local communities , Business and livelihoods , Infrastructure , Buildings , Information and communication system , Urban areas , Rural areas , Mountain slopes , Agricultural lands , Cultural heritages


III. Contact Information

8. Proposer(s) information (Writer of this template)

Name : Dr. Teuku Faisal Fathani
Position : Assoc. Professor in Geotechnical Engineering
Affiliation : Gadjah Mada University
Address : Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jl. Grafika No. 2 Yogyakarta 55281, INDONESIA
E-mail : tfathani@yahoo.com / fathani@tsipil.ugm.ac.id
Tel : +62 274 545675 Fax : +62 274 545676

Co-writer (1) : Prof. Dwikorita Karnawati
Position : Professor in Geological Engineering
Affiliation : Gadjah Mada University

Co-writer (2) : Prof. Kyoji Sassa
Position : Prof. Emeritus of Kyoto University – Executive Director of ICL
Affiliation : International Consortium on Landslides (ICL)

Co-writer (3) : Dr. Hiroshi Fukuoka
Position : Assoc. Professor of Kyoto University
Affiliation : Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI) Kyoto University

9. Country(ies)/region(s) where the technology/knowledge/practice originated

INDONESIA;

Central Java, West Java, East Java, South Kalimantan, South Sulawesi

10. Names and institutions of technology/knowledge developers

Dr. Teuku Faisal Fathani and Prof. Dwikorita Karnawati
Institution : Gadjah Mada University, INDONESIA

11. Title of relevant projects if any

1. Development of community-based landslide early warning system in Central Java and East Java, supported by Indonesian Ministry for Development of Disadvantages Region (2007-2008)
2. Installation and dissemination of appropriate technology for landslide disaster risk reduction in Central Java and West Java, supported by the Indonesian Agency for Disaster Management (2008)
3. Integration of low-cost and simple technology of landslide monitoring with a real-time landslide early warning technology in Central Java, supported by International Consortium on Landslides (ICL) and Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI) Kyoto University (2007–now)
4. Seismic and Landslide Hazard Mapping for Community Empowerment (including landslide early warning dissemination), supported by British Council of DELPHE Project (2007-2010)

12. References and publications

1. Fathani T.F. and Karnawati D. (2009) Early warning of landslide for disaster risk reduction in Central Java Indonesia, Proceeding of International Workshop on Early Warning for Landslides Disaster Risk Reduction in the Eastern Asian Region, ICL – CGS, Kunming, China.
2. Karnawati, D. , Fathani T.F., Andayani B., Burton P.W. and Sudarno I. (2009) “Strategic program for landslide disaster risk reduction; a lesson learned from Central Java, Indonesia” , in Disaster Management and Human Health Risk; Reducing Risk, Improving Outcomes. Eds : K. Duncan and C.A. Brebbia. WIT Transactions on the Built Environment, WIT Press, Southompton, UK. p.115-126.
3. Karnawati, D., Fathani T.F., Andayani B., and Burton P.W. (2009) “Landslide Hazard and Community-based Risk Reduction Efforts in Karanganyar and the Surrounding Area, Central Java, Indonesia”, published in the Proceeding of the 7th Regional Conference of IAEG (Int. Assoc. Of Engineering Geology), 9-11 September 2009, Chengdu, China. p.436-441.
4. Fathani, T.F., D. Karnawati, K. Sassa, H. Fukuoka, K. Honda (2008) Development of Landslide Monitoring and Early Warning System in Indonesia. Proceeding of the First World Landslide Forum, 18-21 Nov. 2008. United Nation University, Tokyo, Japan. Global Promotion Committee of The Int. Program on Landslide (IPL) – ISDR. p. 195 - 198.
5. Andayani B., Karnawati D., Pramumijoyo S. (2008) Institutional Frame Work for Community Empowerment towards Landslide Mitigation and Risk Reduction in Indonesia. Proceeding of the First World Landslide Forum, 18-21 Nov. 2008. United Nation University, Tokyo, Japan. Global Promotion Committee of The Int. Program on Landslide (IPL) – ISDR. P. 57-59.
6. Karnawati D., Pramumijoyo S., Andayani B., Burton P.W. (2008) Earthquake and Landslide Hazard Mapping For Community Empowerment. Proceeding of the 51st Annual Meeting Assoc. of Engineering and Environmental Geologist.Sept. 15 – 20, 2008. New Orleans, Lousiana, USA.
7. Karnawati D. and Fathani T.F. (2008) Mechanism of Earthquake Induced Landslides in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. Published in The Yogyakarta Earthquake of May 27, 2006. Eds. D. Karnawati, S. Pramumijoyo, R. Anderson and S. Hussein. STAR Publishing Company Inc., Belmont, CA. ISBN 978 – 0 – 89863 – 304 – 7. p 8-1 to 8-8.

13. Note on ownership if any

Gadjah Mada University, INDONESIA


IV. Background

14. Disaster events and/or societal circumstances, which became the driving force either for developing the technology/knowledge or enhancing its practice

As the dynamic volcanic-archipelagoes, more than 60% of Indonesian region are covered by the mountainous and hilly areas of weathered volcanic rocks, which are intersected by faults and rock joints. These geological conditions give rise to the high landslide susceptibility of the region. Moreover, the high rain precipitation which can exceed 2000 mm to 3000 mm per year, frequent earthquake vibrations as well as the extensive landuse changing and deforestation cause the occurrence of landslides frequently increase recently. Since the last 8 years, more than 40 landslide disasters occurred and result in 1326 people died or missing. Urgently, some efforts should be done to avoid or reduce the risk of landslides. Unfortunately, most landslide susceptible areas have very fertile soils and very good quality and quantity of water. This makes the susceptible areas are densely populated, and it create serious inducement to slope instability.

In order to improve the community resilience, a strategic program for landslide risk reduction should be carried out by establishing appropriate landslide risk management program with respect to social vulnerability. Despite an effort to establish slope protection zone, which is restricted for any development and settlement, the relocation program is not easy to be carried out due to socio-economical constrains. Therefore, landslide monitoring, prediction and early warning system are urgently required to guarantee the safety of community living in hazard prone area.


V. Description

15. Feature and attribute

Aim :
1. To propose a simple and low-cost technology for landslide monitoring and early warning, so that the local community in remote area could easily operate and maintain the proposed technology by their own capability.
2. To support landslide disaster risk disaster program in Indonesia, though the installation and dissemination of the most adaptive technology for landslide early warning to guarantee the safety of community living in hazard prone area

Mechanism :
The aims can be achieved by implementing a socio-technical strategic approach through community-based landslide early warning system. As the initiation of quantitative investigation, two types of simple extensometers and automatic raingauge were installed at several pilot areas in five provinces in Indonesia. The first type of extensometer is a handmade manual reading extensometer. Another type is the automatic extensometer, where the relative movement between two points is mechanically enlarged by 5 times and recorded on a paper continually (Fig. 1). Both types of extensometers are connected to the siren system in order to directly warn the local community for taking necessary actions in dealing with landslide disaster. Furthermore, a simple modified raingauge has also developed with hourly rainfall intensity recorded on a paper continually. This raingauge is also connected to the siren system to warn the community if the precipitation reaches a certain value. During the installment, five local operators have been trained on how to install and operate this simple equipment

15_Fig1-1.jpg   15_Fig1-2.jpg
Fig. 1 Handmade manual reading extensometer and with recording to a paper manually.

 

15_Fig2-1.jpg  15_Fig2-2.jpg

Fig. 2 Simple modified raingage to monitor critical rainfall, which connected to siren system


In line with the development of simple equipment, a field survey to support the establishment of low-cost real-time landslide monitoring and warning system has been conducted. This system presents the results of real-time measurement by using automatic extensometer (Fig.3), tiltmeter, groundwater measurement and tipping bucket raingauge (Fig. 4). The monitoring equipment connected with a data logger and integrated in a fieldserver. This sensing device provides real-time online data display system, which gathers the data from multiple sensors and shows them in a webserver. This unit also implements early warning that can be adjusted depending on the site condition.

 

15_Fig3-1.jpg  15_Fig3-2.jpg
Fig. 3 Automatic upper-ground extensometer.

 

15_Fig4.jpg

Fig. 4 Automatic tipping bucket raingage with siren and rotary light

 

16. Necessary process to implement

Procedure :
The equipment installation and operation need to be supported by local community through the establishment of Task Force for Disaster Mitigation and Management. This team is responsible for the installment, operation and maintanance of the technical system. To provide an early warning, an alarm is connected to each equipment in the system and the alarm is automatically set to be “on” when the critical rainfall which can induce landsliding and/ or the critical conditions of slope movement occurs. To set the alarm to be on at the appropriate time, all of those equipments are generated by the dry battery and/ or solar energy which can work effectively during the heavy rainfall when the electricity power does not work properly. Small group in charge from local community installed the equipment by themselves under the supervision of the students of Gadjah Mada University (Fig. 5). Fig. 6 shows a student of Gadjah Mada University is checking a newly installed simple extensometer. Fig. 7 shows the placement of handmade manual extensometer crossing to a crack at the upper part of a dense residential area.

16_Fig5-1.jpg  16_Fig5-2.jpg

Fig. 5 Equipment installation conducted by the local community

 

DRH56_Fig6.png

Fig. 6 A student of Gadjah Mada University is checking the performance of simple extensometer at Karanganyar, Central Java.

 

16-Fig7.jpg

Fig. 7 Placement of simple extensometer at Banjarnegara, Central Java.

 

Village action plan (including the contingency plan) for disaster prevention and response program is accordingly developed by this Task Force Team. Obviously, one of the most important program to guarantee the effectiveness in implementing this early warning system in the village is public education and evacuation drill such as illustrated in Fig. 8 and Fig. 9. These programs need to be conducted regularly to improve the awarness and readiness of local community for any possible landslide disaster. In fact, this simple early warning system has successfully saved 35 families from landslide which occurred in Kalitelaga village at Banjarnegera Regency on November 7, 2007.

16-Fig8.jpg

Fig. 8 Training for operator as a part of public education program

 

16-Fig9.jpg

Fig. 9 Evacuation drills involving primary school students.

 

Major actors :
a. The university students, researchers and lectures.
b. The local government leader and officers as the stake holders.
c. The local key persons and local communities as the local task force for disaster mitigation and management.
d. The local NGO may also participate as the patners.
e. Private or Governmental Companies may also participate to provide financial sponsors as a part of their Corporate Social Responsibilities

17. Strength and limitations

Strength :
This simple and low-cost technology of landslide monitoring and early warning is very effective and practical to be implemented in developing countries having a large landslide susceptibility area and limited budget.
An integrated approach of both technical and social system could establish an effective community-based early warning system, hence the community resilience in disaster-prone area at village level can be effectively improved.

 

Limitations :
The implementation of early warning technology needs a strong support from central and local government as well as related stakeholders. However, they willingness in working for disaster risk reduction is still very low compare to their sudden-reactive effort for disaster quick-response and reconstruction-rehabilitation activities.

18. Lessons learned through implementation if any

Some lesson learned can be derived from this program that landslide early warning system should be based on the appropriate and most adaptive technology with the involvement of community participation. Therefore, both technical skill and communication skill are the main requirements to achieve the success of early warning system program. The system should include some technical aspect such as the geological surveys and site selection, design of monitoring equipment which is simple (low cost) but effective, determination of early warning levels, installment and operation/maintenance at the field site, as well as include the social aspect such as social mapping and evaluation, public consultation and dissemination of program, community empowerment including the technical training and evacuation drill for landslide hazard preparedness. The role of scientist or researcher is more like to be the motivator and facilitator, instead of the instructor or manager of program.


VI. Resources required

19. Facilities and equipments required

a. Detail geological investigation to determine the necessity of early warning and type of technology to be installed.
b. Simple and low-cost technology for monitoring and early warning of landslide, such as: handmade simple extensometer, extensometer with data logger, automatic raingage, groundwater level gage and tiltmeter.
c. Community empowerment through the establishment of Task Force for disaster mitigation and management, training, focus group discussion and evacuation drills.
d. Hazard, vulnerability and risk mapping, as well as evacuation map in village or sub-village level.

20. Costs, organization, manpower, etc.

Cost of this program is mainly supported by Gadjah Mada University, but some additional which may become the major supports can also be generated from the government institutions/local government resources/ private companies/ and international organizations (International Consortium on Landslides-ICL).
Estimated cost for detail field investigation, development of one set of early warning equipment, installation and dissemination of early warning system to the local community is about 20,000 USD for each landslide area (approximately 100 ha covered area). One set of equipment consist of 5 extensometer or tiltmeter, 1 raingage and 1 groundwater measurement. The type of early warning equipment to be installed will be decided based on the results of detail field investigation. 

 

The manpower mainly supported by the 10 students and 4 lecturers who are deployed in the field together with the local communities (10 persons in charge as local operators), in coordination with the local governments.


VII. Message from the proposer if any

21. Message


VIII. Self evaluation in relation to applicability

22. How do you evaluate the technology/knowledge that you have proposed?

It is a technology/knowledge that has fair applicability demonstrated by implementation in one or more field sites.

23. Notes on the applicability if any


IX. Application examples

No.1

    E1-1. Project name if available

    Development of community-based landslide early warning system in Central Java and East Java Province


    E1-2. Place

    Banjarnegara Regency – Central Java Province and in Situbondo Regency – East Java Province, INDONESIA


    E1-3. Year

    2007-2008


    E1-4. Investor

    Gadjah Mada University-Ministry of National Education, Indonesian Ministry for Development of Disadvantages Region, Local Government of Banjarnegara Regency and Situbondo Regency for the financial and facility supports, as well as the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL) and Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI) Kyoto University


    E1-5. People involved

    - Students, Researchers and Lecturers with multidisciplines background from Gadjah Mada Univresity
    - Local community and Task Force for disaster mitigation and management.
    - Local government of Banjarnegara and Situbondo Regency
    - Indonesian Ministry for Development of Disadvantages Region


    E1-6. Monetary costs incurred

    USD 30,000 (provided by Gadjah Mada University – Ministry of National Education & Indonesian Ministry for Development of Disadvantages Region)


    E1-7. Total workload required

    Deployment of students and lecturers for field investigation was undertaken for 2 months.
    Designing the simple and low-cost technology in the laboratory was undertaken for 3 months.
    Installation and dissemination of early warning system were conducted for another 2 months


    E1-8. Evidence of positive result

    Tangible evidence :
    a. The establishment of new technology for landslide monitoring and early warning system.
    b. The establishment of Community Task Force for Disaster Mitigation and Management.

     

    Intangible evidence :
    a. Improvement of community awarness and capacity for landslide mitigation.
    b. Improvement of students’/young researchers’ knowledge and skill for landslide disaster management.


No.2

    E2-1. Project name if available

    Installation and dissemination of appropriate technology for landslide disaster risk reduction in Central Java and West Java


    E2-2. Place

    Karanganyar Regency – Central Java Province and Cianjur Regency – West Java Province, INDONESIA


    E2-3. Year

    2008


    E2-4. Investor

    Gadjah Mada University-Ministry of National Education, Indonesian National Agency for Disaster Management, Local Government of Karanganyar Regency and Cianjur Regency for the financial and facility supports, as well as the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL) and Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI) Kyoto University


    E2-5. People involved

    - Students, Researchers and Lecturers with multidisciplines background from Gadjah Mada University, ICL and DPRI-Kyoto University
    - Local community and Task Force for disaster mitigation and management.
    - Local government of Karanganyar and Cianjur Regency
    - Indonesian National Agency for Disaster Management


    E2-6. Monetary costs incurred

    USD 35,000 (provided by Gadjah Mada University – Ministry of National Education & Indonesian National Agency for Disaster Management)
    One set of landslide early warning system – provided by The International Consortium on Landslides (ICL).


    E2-7. Total workload required

    Deployment of students and lecturers for field investigation was undertaken for 2 months.
    Designing the simple and low-cost technology in the laboratory was undertaken for 2 months.
    Installation and dissemination of early warning system were conducted for another 2 months.


    E2-8. Evidence of positive result

    Tangible evidence :
    a. The establishment of new technology for landslide monitoring and early warning system.
    b. The establishment of Community Task Force for Disaster Mitigation and Management.

     

    Intangible evidence :
    a. Improvement of community awarness and capacity for landslide mitigation.
    b. Improvement of students’/young researchers’ knowledge and skill for landslide disaster management


No.3

    E3-1. Project name if available

    Integration of low-cost and simple technology of landslide monitoring with a real-time landslide early warning technology in Central Java


    E3-2. Place

    Banjarnegara Regency – Central Java Province


    E3-3. Year

    2007 - now


    E3-4. Investor

    Gadjah Mada University-Ministry of National Education, Local Government of Banjarnegara Regency, the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL) for the financial and facility supports and Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI) Kyoto University


    E3-5. People involved

    - Students, Researchers and Lecturers with multidisciplines background from Gadjah Mada University, ICL and DPRI-Kyoto University
    - Local community and Task Force for disaster mitigation and management.
    - Local government of Banjarnegara Regency


    E3-6. Monetary costs incurred

    One set of real-time landslide early waring system -provided by The International Consortium on Landslides (ICL) and DPRI Kyoto University.

    Once set of simple and low-cost landslide early warning system-provided by Gadjah Mada University.


    E3-7. Total workload required

    Deployment of students and lecturers for field investigation was undertaken for 6 months.

    Designing the simple and low-cost technology in the laboratory was undertaken for 4 months.

    Installation and dissemination of early warning system were conducted for another 4 months.


    E3-8. Evidence of positive result

    Tangible evidence :
    a. The integration of low-cost and simple technology of landslide monitoring with a real-time landslide early warning technology.
    b. Development of integrated online early warning system website of Gadjah Mada University : http://www.ews-ugm.com

     

    Intangible evidence :
    a. Improvement of community awarness and capacity for landslide mitigation.
    b. Improvement of students’/young researchers’ knowledge and skill for landslide disaster management.



X. Other related parallel initiatives if any

Message

The development of the most adaptive (simple and low-cost) technology for community-based landslide early warning system has been promoted and recognized as one research excellence of International Programme on Landslides under UNESCO (No: IPL-158)


XI. Remarks for version upgrade

Message

Attached files:

> 16_Fig6.jpg (JPG - 23 Kb)

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