DRH-Asia: Disaster Reduction Hyperbase
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1. Title

Application of Spatial Temporal GIS for Earthquake Disaster Recovery Service

ID: DRH 3 Example of Spatial Temporal database.
Hazard: Earthquake , Multi-hazard

Implementation Oriented Technology (IOT)

Proposer: Hiroyuki Yamada
Country: JAPAN;
Date posted: 10 January 2008
Date published: 02 January 2009
Copyright © 2009 Hiroyuki Yamada (proposer). All rights reserved.

Example of Spatial Temporal database.


Hiroyuki Yamada (Research Fellow), Takashi Furuto (Technical Staff) and Shigeru Kakumoto (Invited Research Fellow)
4th Floor, Human Renovation Museum, 1-5-2, Wakinohama-kaigan-dori, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 651-0073, JAPAN
yamada@edm.bosai.go.jp (Yamada) , furuto@(Furuto), kaku@(Kakumoto)

2. Major significance / Summary

The aim of this activity was to improve efficiency of earthquake disaster recovery operation for victims’ relief. Significant issue is to achieve the information processing required in recovery service by spatial-temporal GIS. Therefore, through the support of municipality, establishment and verification of the system was done and the system was identified to contribute to improvement of efficiency of recovery operation.

3. Keywords

municipality, recovery operation, Spatial-Temporal GIS

II. Categories

4. Focus of this information

Implementation Oriented Technology (IOT)

5. Users

5-1. Anticipated users: Administrative officers , Municipalities , National governments and other intermediate government bodies (state, prefecture, district, etc.) , Experts , Information technology specialists

5-2. Other users: Motivated researchers

6. Hazards focused

Earthquake , Multi-hazard

7. Elements at risk

Information and communication system

III. Contact Information

8. Proposer(s) information (Writer of this template)

Hiroyuki Yamada (Research Fellow), Takashi Furuto (Technical Staff) and Shigeru Kakumoto (Invited Research Fellow)
4th Floor, Human Renovation Museum, 1-5-2, Wakinohama-kaigan-dori, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 651-0073, JAPAN
yamada@edm.bosai.go.jp (Yamada) , furuto@(Furuto), kaku@(Kakumoto)

9. Country(ies)/region(s) where the technology/knowledge/practice originated


10. Names and institutions of technology/knowledge developers

Earthquake Disaster Mitigation Research Center (EDM) National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED)

11. Title of relevant projects if any

12. References and publications

Supporting Municipality Using Spatial Temporal GIS in 2004 Niigata-ken Chuetsu Earthquake, Hiroyuki YAMADA, Furuto TAKASHI, Naofumi SASAKI, Kaoru FUKUYAMA, Koji YOSHIKAWA and Shigeru KAKUMOTO, Proceedings of the 7th International Cooperative Seminar between KAGIS & GISA, pp.53-60, 2005.

13. Note on ownership if any

IV. Background

14. Disaster events and/or societal circumstances, which became the driving force either for developing the technology/knowledge or enhancing its practice

The Niigata-Ken Chuetsu Earthquake was occurred in October 23 in 2004. The earthquake gave devastating damages on houses, lifeline, agriculture, and others related to livelihood.  Recovery services of the municipality were not working properly.  The reduction of human loss is more important.  But rapid recovery can also reduce economic loss and it is a part of disaster reduction.  Additionally, municipal service was not working well because of discrepancy between record of ledger and the state of the affected area.  It caused the delay of recovery and reconstruction.

V. Description

15. Feature and attribute

Aim: Disaster reduction using information technology.
Key mechanism: Efficiency improvement of recovery operation
Information problem to be solved, which were identified from the support activity on the site were as below;
- reduction of information processing time relate to recovery operation
- register and referring of disaster situation
- discrepancy between map and the state of the affected areas
- man-machine interface of information checking up
For the resolution of this problem, it is considered that cooperating many RDB with common unique ID or incorporating spatial positional relation with GIS which define topology. The fundamental factors of information management of municipality are family unit code, house address, and the number of each house. Area which home addresses shows is just a site which has house(s), and the address does not indicate specific location of each house.  In other words, size of house site (family unit code or taxpayer code) is ranged from tens of square meters to hundreds of square meters orders but house need accuracy of scale of several meters to tens of meters to be recognized.  Therefore, the current information database could identify address of houses but not identify more specific location than space which address shows. To achieve prompt recovery, integration of information from different dissolution levels is necessary for municipality recovery operation. 
The solution is spatial key (x, y, t: t is period of information) as DB index. In addition, adding information of location and time (period) is entered to DB. Spatial Temporal GIS enable the dynamic topology calculation. To achieve the proposed information processing, the elements of Spatial-temporal information processing, decentralized independence information processing, open and public data schema, and spatial-temporal database are required.
Fig. 1 shows procedures. Respective information is processed to be read out with spatial information of ID or attribute from each DB. Then, for calculating spatial topology, it is needed to sort out the correlation of space where attribute information exist. Consequently, attribute information is correlated in map (border of government such as street name, border of lot number, shape of house and so on) that border of space is previously described in time of attribute information exists. When using map, ID of attribute is described on a map. Topology on a map is defined by this processing. Spatial Temporal GIS enable the dynamic topology calculation.


Fig.1 Spatial-temporal information processing procedures




16. Necessary process to implement

17. Strength and limitations

One example of strength:
Spatial-temporal photographic databases of disaster damage are constructed. Effectiveness of photographic data is shown below.
- It is useful as objectivity information on comparing.
- Making up of information difference at map and current state
- Record and reference to disaster situation
The map should be suited to the current status prior to disasters. Construction of Spatial Temporal data base (base map, fixed asset ledger data, etc.) is necessary before disasters.

18. Lessons learned through implementation if any

VI. Resources required

19. Facilities and equipments required

Spatial Temporal GIS and Laptop PC, (According to the situation: scanner, GPS unit, GPS camera) were required.

20. Costs, organization, manpower, etc.

Cooperation of local government is absolutely crucial.
Spatial Temporal GIS is developed by NIED. Software fee is free for non-commercial use.
The base map construction cost depends on the situation. (digitize from paper map, digitize from satellite image, etc.)
GPS digital camera: 80000 yen (about 700US$) 
GPS unit: 20000 yen (about 170US$)
Scanner: 40000 yen (about 350US$)

VII. Message from the proposer if any

21. Message

"Applycability of world wide"

In 1999 Kocaeli Turkey Earthquake, DiMSIS applied disaster information management in Duze city. Afterwards, DiMSIS is used by routine work in the Duze city. In addition, system were customized to intended for the task.The initial cost and running cost can be cut down compared with conventional GIS. DiMSIS license managed consortium agreement and DiMSIS can be provided free of charge in case of non-commercial use.Cooperate with other systems is available, becouse DiMSIS employ open data structure and open API. The converter of shape and the DXF format were commercially available in general market. Disaster information management can be streamlined by managed with the position and time based on DiMSIS. Momentarily managed to handle information is required when the catastrophic disaster, and disaster information management based on address and the index is difficult to execute recovery operations at the municipality. DiMSIS contributed to the promotion of streamlining for recovery service at municipality in time of the Great Hanshin Earthquake in 1995 and the 2004 Niigata-ken Chuetsu Earthquake, etc.


VIII. Self evaluation in relation to applicability

22. How do you evaluate the technology/knowledge that you have proposed?

It is a technology/knowledge that is shown to be effectie based on case studies/experiments in field sites.

23. Notes on the applicability if any

IX. Application examples


    E1-1. Project name if available

    Supporting Municipality Using Spatial Temporal GIS in 2004 Niigata-ken Chuetsu Earthquake.

    E1-2. Place

    Areas devastated by the Niigata-ken Chuetsu Earthquake.
    (Tokamachi city, Kawaguchi town)

    E1-3. Year


    E1-4. Investor

    NIED, GIS Association of Japan

    E1-5. People involved

    Recovery services at the municipality after Niigata-ken Chuetsu earthquake has been assisted under the support of GIS Association of Japan. A GIS volunteer group was organized for the Spatial-temporal GIS-SIG and the Disaster GIS-SIG special activities.

    E1-6. Monetary costs incurred

    The base map construction cost is about 500,000 yen.
    Staying cost of volunteer student is about 700,000 yen (About two months)

    E1-7. Total workload required

    Case example:
    The Kawaguchi town recorded the maximum seismic intensity and house damage was extensive. In the whole area of the Kawaguchi town received extensive damage from the earthquake (house, road, and  farmland). The photograph databases of the all houses (dwelling house and incidental house) were constructed. Six volunteers executed the registration of about 5000 pieces photographs (about 1600 family units) in five days.(Fig. 2)

     Fig. 2 Example of Spatial Temporal database


    Fig. 3 Example of utilization for local government


    Total workload Activity period:
    About 150 man-day. (Activity period: About two months)

    E1-8. Evidence of positive result

    Spatial-temporal GIS was used for management of recovery services by municipality staff. The support activities in the municipality contribute to improve efficiency of recovery services.

X. Other related parallel initiatives if any


XI. Remarks for version upgrade


Attached files:

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