DRH-Asia: Disaster Reduction Hyperbase
(by Google translation. Translation will be reset by reloading.)

1. Title

Experiences Sharing and School Disaster Education: Implementation of Essay and Drawing Competition as School Disaster Education

ID: DRH 48 Drawing competition
Hazard: Earthquake , Tsunami , Volcanic eruption , Landslide , Mudflow , Dust storm , Cold wave , Heat wave , Zud , Cyclone/Typhoon , Storm surge , Flood , Flash flood , Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) , Snow avalanches , Epidemic , Wildfire , Drought , Desertification , Climate change impact , Land degradation , Multi-hazard , Other
Category:

Process Technology (PT)

Proposer: Koichi Shiwaku
Country: PAKISTAN;
Date posted: 20 January 2009
Date published: 09 June 2009
Copyright © 2009 Koichi Shiwaku (proposer). All rights reserved.

Drawing competition

Contact

Koichi Shiwaku (Research Fellow, EDM-NIED), Muhammad Shakeel (President of STAR Foundation), Yukiko Takeuchi (Lecturer, Kyoto University), Rajib Shaw (Associate Professor, Kyoto University), Ayako Fujieda (PHD student, Kyoto University), and Jishnu Subedi (???)

shiwaku@edm.bosai.go.jp

2. Major significance / Summary

Knowing experineces of past disasters as school disaster education is important for disaster reduction. Essay and drawing competition can be an opportunities to collect experience and share experiences among students. Such experiences are important materials for future generation to understand past disasters.

3. Keywords

education, Pakistan, school, teachers, students, earthquake


II. Categories

4. Focus of this information

Process Technology (PT)

5. Users

5-1. Anticipated users: Community leaders (voluntary base) , Administrative officers , Municipalities , National governments and other intermediate government bodies (state, prefecture, district, etc.) , NGO/NPO project managers and staff , International organizations (UN organizations and programmes, WB, ADRC, EC, etc.) , Teachers and educators , Environmental/Ecological specialists

5-2. Other users: Motivated researchers , Local residents

6. Hazards focused

Earthquake , Tsunami , Volcanic eruption , Landslide , Mudflow , Dust storm , Cold wave , Heat wave , Zud , Cyclone/Typhoon , Storm surge , Flood , Flash flood , Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) , Snow avalanches , Epidemic , Wildfire , Drought , Desertification , Climate change impact , Land degradation , Multi-hazard , Other

This technology can be utilized for reduction of any types of disasters.

7. Elements at risk

Human lives , Human networks in local communities , Business and livelihoods , Infrastructure , Buildings , Information and communication system , Urban areas , Rural areas , Coastal areas , River banks and fluvial basin , Mountain slopes , Agricultural lands , Cultural heritages , Others

This technology can cover any types of elements.


III. Contact Information

8. Proposer(s) information (Writer of this template)

Koichi Shiwaku (Research Fellow, EDM-NIED), Muhammad Shakeel (President of STAR Foundation), Yukiko Takeuchi (Lecturer, Kyoto University), Rajib Shaw (Associate Professor, Kyoto University), Ayako Fujieda (PHD student, Kyoto University), and Jishnu Subedi (???)

shiwaku@edm.bosai.go.jp

9. Country(ies)/region(s) where the technology/knowledge/practice originated

PAKISTAN;

Bagh, AJK (Kashmir)

10. Names and institutions of technology/knowledge developers

Koichi Shiwaku, Research Fellow, EDM-NIED
Muhammad Shakeel, President of STAR Foundation
Yukiko Takeuchi, Lecturer, Kyoto University
Rajib Shaw, Associate Professor, Kyoto University
Ayako Fujieda, PHD student, Kyoto University
Jishnu Subedi, ???



11. Title of relevant projects if any

Promotion of School Disaster Education in Affected Areas

12. References and publications

Experiences of Pakistan Earthquake of 2005: Student's Messages from Kashmir, EDM-NIED Publication, January 2009
Guidelines for School Disaster Education: Express and Extend Experiences, EDM-NIED Publication, January 2009

13. Note on ownership if any


IV. Background

14. Disaster events and/or societal circumstances, which became the driving force either for developing the technology/knowledge or enhancing its practice

On October 8th 2005, an earthquake that measured 7.6 on the Richter scale hit the northern part of Pakistan, a part of the NWFP province of Pakistan and three districts of Azad Jammu & Kashmir. More than 73,000 people including more than 18,000 children died in this earthquake. 400,153 houses were destroyed or severely damaged. 2.8 million people lost their own houses.

Impacts to house

It is necessary for people to reduce risks and impacts of future disasters. To reduce risks and impacts, people are needed to take action for disaster reduction. Disaster education plays important a role to solve this problem. Experiences are important for people. People who experienced disasters can realize importance of disaster management. But it is difficult for people who has not experienced disasters to “REALIZE” importance even if they “KNOW” importance. Therefore, how we use experience in school disaster education is important challenge for future disaster reduction.


V. Description

15. Feature and attribute

In the affected areas, current generation has actual disaster experiences.  But future generation can not have experiences directly after long time passes.  There are major issues to be solved on disaster management as below;

  • People think disaster is just past event in the affected area
  • People do no think disasters will come to them outside affected area

To solve above issues, it is necessary to utilize experiences or lessons of the past disasters and to transfer them to next generation.  School disaster education can contribute to solving these issues.

Essay competition and drawing competition are famous activities in extracurriculum education in schools especially in south asian countries. This technology is combination of these activities and disaster education.  In these competition, students are requested to write their own disaster experieces.  It is an opportunities for students to express their experiences and for conducter (e.g. school teachers) to collect experiences.  These experiences will be know by future children to know past disasters.  These experiences are published as textbook for both present and future students.  In addition, guidelines are also published for teachers to utilize the textbook.      

Concept of competition

 

Features of this technology are following;

  • Utilization of extra curriculum
  • Provide awareness rasing programs
  • Can collect experiences to share among current students and transfer to next generation
  • Specialized knowledge is not necessary to apply


textbook

Textbook includes essays and drawings.  Present students can know other students feelings in disaster situation.  Future children can know past disasters to think what they have to do for disaster reduction.  

 

guidelines

Guidelines provides 1) How to conduct competition and 2) how to utilize textbook.  School teachers can use the guidelines to implement disaster education in their schools even if they do not have specilized knowledge on disaster management.  


 

 

 

 

16. Necessary process to implement

Instruction to teachers

Before conducting competitions, teachers need to understand purpose of the activities.  Education department, local NGO, or other specilized organization should provide instruction.

instruction to teachers
 

Instruction to students

Students also need to know purpose of competition.  It is prefereable that teachers give instruction.  

instruction to students

Group discussion

Before writing essays and drawing, it is better to have group discussion.  Through group discussion, students can remember what happened in disaster situation and can write their own specific experience.  In addition, group discussion contribute to rasing cooperation with other people.

 

Writing essays and drawing

Students write essays and drawings.  It is hoped that students write their own specific disaster experiences.  General experiences are easy to imagine for future children.  But many problems which is difficult to imagine happen when disasters occur.  Specific problems are needed to be written to understand actual disaster situation.

Writing essays

Drawing

 

Development of education materials

Esssays and drawings need to be kept for future children in order to udnerstand past disasters.   

 

17. Strength and limitations

Strengh

Esssays and drawing competition is a tool to share experiences and to transfer them to future generation.  It is not difficult to conduct these competition.  Therefore, any teachers can couduct competition as a part of school education and a part of disaster education.  

 

Limitation

Competition is one of awareness raising program and is not program to  provide knwoledge on disaster management or natural hazards.  

In the competition, students are requested to write their own disaster experiences.  It means that students need to have experiences.  Therefore, this technology can be applied in disaster affected areas but developed manual (textbook and guidelines) can be utilized in any areas.   

18. Lessons learned through implementation if any

Combination of competition and disaster education was the first experiences for teachers in the affected area of Pakistan Earthquake of 2005.  It was great opportunities for teachers to realize that extra curriculum can be utilize as disaster education and that they can conduct disaster education by themselves.   

Students enjoyed competition.  It is very important to implement disaster education, especially awareness raising.  


VI. Resources required

19. Facilities and equipments required

Essay competition

  • Pen
  • Essay sheet

 

Drawing cometition

  • Drawing tools
  • Drawing sheet

20. Costs, organization, manpower, etc.

To give instruction, local organization is necessary.  But competition can be implemented by schools without any large help from outside. 

To implement this technology, it does not cost much.  When schools conduct, they need to prepare some facilities to have competitions.  


VII. Message from the proposer if any

21. Message

---


VIII. Self evaluation in relation to applicability

22. How do you evaluate the technology/knowledge that you have proposed?

It is a technology/knowledge that is shown to be effectie based on case studies/experiments in field sites.

23. Notes on the applicability if any

---


IX. Application examples

No.1

    E1-1. Project name if available

    Promotion of School Disaster Education in Affected Areas


    E1-2. Place

    Two schools in Tehsil Bagh, AJK, Pakistan (affected area of Pakistan Earthquake of 2005)

    school

    school children


    E1-3. Year

    2008


    E1-4. Investor

    Hyogo Earthquake Memorial 21st Century Research Institute


    E1-5. People involved

    Koichi Shiwaku, Research Fellow, EDM-NIED
    Muhammad Shakeel, President of STAR Foundation
    Yukiko Takeuchi, Lecturer, Kyoto University
    Rajib Shaw, Associate Professor, Kyoto University
    Ayako Fujieda, PHD student, Kyoto University
    Jishnu Subedi, ???

    students
    school teachers
    local NGO staffs


    E1-6. Monetary costs incurred

    ---


    E1-7. Total workload required

    Planning: 2 month

    Arrangement by local NGO (1 month)

    Implementation (competition): 2 days (1 day in one school)

    Development of textbook and guidelines: (3 month)


    E1-8. Evidence of positive result

    Local NGO and teachers aquired ability to conduct disaster education.  Students can share experiences of Paksitan Earthquake of 2005 among them.   


No.2

    E2-1. Project name if available

    ---


    E2-2. Place

    ---


    E2-3. Year

    ---


    E2-4. Investor

    ---


    E2-5. People involved

    ---


    E2-6. Monetary costs incurred

    ---


    E2-7. Total workload required

    ---


    E2-8. Evidence of positive result

    ---


No.3

    E3-1. Project name if available

    ---


    E3-2. Place

    ---


    E3-3. Year

    ---


    E3-4. Investor

    ---


    E3-5. People involved

    ---


    E3-6. Monetary costs incurred

    ---


    E3-7. Total workload required

    ---


    E3-8. Evidence of positive result

    ---



X. Other related parallel initiatives if any

Message

---


XI. Remarks for version upgrade

Message

---

Institutions contributing to DRH Contents (Click here): posted on request